WHY DESTROY VINYL?

zachary tipton

Posted on October 24 2014

Recently we have been getting a lot of comments on why we are destroying our cultural heritage to make our products.

I would reply: Why are you destroying the planet?

I just want to bring a few facts to light.

It takes roughly 1 barrel of crude oil to produce 50 vinyl records. Please keep in mind that there are many variables such as the quality of the crude and the weight of the pressing.

Vinylize comissioned two researchers to determine how much PVC can be produced on average from one barrel of crude. These estimations do not take into account transportation or production of sleeves.

I find it very upsetting that with the advent of the digital age, vinyl is still being pressed. The production of vinyl is a huge drain on resources. It is like taking one step forward and two steps back.

In 2013 6.1 million vinyl records were sold in the USA alone. 

 

Download instead of buying vinyl and save your hard earned cash and make a statement against consumerism with Vinylize.

 

How much PVC can be produced from 1 Barrel of Crude by Pooja Kumari

Process:

Crude oils vary in their composition, but generally range around 3% LPG, 27% jet fuel, 11% naphtha, 18% gasoline, 12% diesel, 28% residual, and 1% asphalt. Refinery processes change low quality material into higher quality products, which are more valuable.

 

Refining of Crude Oil

The various parts of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components by fractional distillation. As the components of crude oil have different boiling temperatures, the components can be separated easily at different temperatures.

Here are the steps of fractional distillation:

  • Heat the crude oil to about 1112°F / 600°C. The mixture boils, forming vapor (gases).
  • The vapor enters the bottom of a fractional distillation column filled with trays or plates.
  • The trays have many holes or bubble caps (like a loosened cap on a soda bottle) in them to allow the vapor to pass through.
  • The column is hot at the bottom, cool at the top.
  • The vapor rises in the column and as it rises through the trays, it cools.

When a substance in the vapor reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance's boiling point, it will condense to form a liquid.

It is observed in this process that the substances which have the lowest boiling point will condense at the highest point in the column; substances which have higher boiling points will condense lower in the column. The trays collect the various liquid fractions.

Light fractions include gas, gasoline, naphtha kerosene, and fuel oils. Heavy fractions include lubricating oils and heavy gas oil.

Plastic manufacturers use processes like refiners, or purchase products to produce the chemicals that are used in synthesizing plastics. Since crude oil contains many molecules, the industry breaks and builds molecules to fill the niche.

By refining crude oil, various fractions can be acquired, one of which is the naphtha fraction. The cracking process (breaking down at high temperatures) of naphtha allows ethylene, propylene, and other chemical raw materials to be produced.

Products from separation section ethylene 24%, propylene 20%, and butadiene 3%, BTX 1% and petroleum ether 25%, and other products can be obtained.

 

Manufacturing of PVC from Ethylene

First of all VCM is produced from ethylene.

Vinyl Chloride Monomer VCM production:

VCM is the key material from which PVC is manufactured. VCM is a gas with a molecular weight of 62.5 and boiling point of -13.9°C, and hence has a high vapor pressure at normal temperature. It is therefore manufactured under strict quality and safety control. There are two ways to manufacture VCM from ethylene, one is the direct chlorination method and other is oxychlorination method.

  • Under the direct chlorination method, ethylene and chlorine (obtained from electrolysis of salt) react within a catalyst-containing reactor to form the intermediate material EDC. EDC is then thermally cracked to yield VCM at a few hundred °C.
  • When the hydrogen chloride obtained as by-product from the above method reacts with ethylene in the presence of catalyst and air (or oxygen), EDC is obtained again. This is called the oxychlorination process. When EDC from the oxychlorination process is dehydrated and then thermally cracked, VCM is obtained.

Polymerization

The chemical process for making PVC involves taking the simplest unit, called the monomer, these monomer molecules are linked together in the polymerization process.
The process of `polymerization' links together the vinyl chloride molecules to form chains of PVC (polymer). This process is carried out at 520C and 9 atmosphere pressure. The PVC produced in this way is in the form of a white powder.

 

NOW, WE HAVE TO CALCULATE HOW MUCH AMOUNT OF PVC CAN BE PRODUCED FROM ONE BARREL (119.24 LITERS) CRUDE OIL.

Suppose 100 Liters of crude produce 11 liters of naphtha by fractional distillation.

So 119.24 liters of crude will produce   = 13.17 liters of naphtha.

It means that 1 barrel produces 13.17 liters of naphtha.

From the above discussion we know that naphtha contains only 24%,

Now, suppose 100 liters naphtha produce 24 liters ethylene.

So 13.17 liters of naphtha will produce  = 3.161 liters ethylene.

This is the prime requirement of producing PVC from ethylene.

We come on conclusion that 1 barrel of crude produces 3.161 liters ethylene.

 

PRODUCTION OF PVC

PVC is a thermoplastic made of 57% chlorine (derived from industrial grade salt) and 43% carbon (derived predominantly from oil / gas via ethylene). It is less dependent than other polymers on crude oil or natural gas.

Here we see PVC has the larger portion of chlorine.

Now,   = 7.352 kg PVC

It means that 1 barrel crude oil can produce 7.352 kg PVC.

Step # 1.  Calculate the amount of naphtha in 1 barrel crude oil.

             Amount of naphtha = % of naphtha containing in crude oil  1.1924 = n liters naphtha.

Step # 2.  Calculate the amount of PVC produced from naphtha chlorinated.

Amount of PVC = 1.3256 n liters naphtha + n liters naphtha

This is very clear and concise method for the calculation of amount of PVC from 1 Barrel Crude oil.

 

Ethylene is produced by the oxidation coupling of methane (OCM)

The oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene is written below:

2CH+ O→ C2H4 + 2H2O

The reaction is exothermic (∆H = -280 kJ/mol) and occurs at high temperatures (750–950˚C). In the reaction, methane is activated heterogeneously on the catalyst surface, forming methyl free radicals, which then couple in the gas phase to form ethane (C2H6). The ethane subsequently undergoes dehydrogenation to form ethylene (C2H4).

 

Vinyl Chloride Monomer VCM production:

VCM is the key material from which PVC is manufactured. VCM is a gas with a molecular weight of 62.5 and boiling point of -13.9°C, and hence has a high vapor pressure at normal temperature. It is therefore manufactured under strict quality and safety control. There are two ways to manufacture VCM from ethylene, one is the direct chlorination method and other is oxychlorination method.

  • Under the direct chlorination method, ethylene and chlorine (obtained from electrolysis of salt) react within a catalyst-containing reactor to form the intermediate material EDC (ethylene dichloride). EDC is then thermally cracked to yield VCM at a few hundred °C.
  • When the hydrogen chloride obtained as by-product from the above method reacts with ethylene in the presence of catalyst and air (or oxygen), EDC is obtained again. This is called the oxychlorination process. When EDC from the oxychlorination process is dehydrated and then thermally cracked, VCM is obtained.

Polymerization

The chemical process for making PVC involves taking the simplest unit, called the monomer, these monomer molecules are linked together in the polymerization process.
The process of `polymerization' links together the vinyl chloride molecules to form chains of PVC. This process is carried out at 520C and 9 atmosphere pressure. The PVC produced in this way is in the form of a white powder.

 

Reference:

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=ambient+temperature+meaning&oq=ambient+te&aqs=chrome.3.69i57j0l5.12699j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8#q=polymerization

http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=ambient+temperature+meaning&oq=ambient+te&aqs=chrome.3.69i57j0l5.12699j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8#q=ethylene+dichloride

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=oxidative+coupling+of+methane&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=624&source=lnms&sa=X&ei=u9g9VIGjEdWxacX8gNgN&ved=0CAUQ_AUoAA&dpr=1#q=the+catalytic+oxidative+coupling+of+methane&revid=123156189

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=process+of+producing+pvc&oq=pro&aqs=chrome.0.69i59j69i57j69i60j0l3.6119j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=process+of+producing+pvc&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=624&tbm=isch&imgil=dG8vLcZ4Ylj-

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/esser/manufacture.html

http://tecspot.astecinc.com/2011/07/crude-oil-distillation/

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/629546/vinyl-chloride

http://www.editionstechnip.com/fr/catalogue-detail/525/petroleum-refining-vol-1-crude-oil-petroleum-products-process-flowsheets.html

http://www.citycollegiate.com/organicixb.htm

http://www.vinyl.org.au/pvc-safe-manufacturing

http://www.renolit.com/fileadmin/renolit/corporate/images/Everything_about_PVC.pdf

http://www.quora.com/How-much-PVC-is-made-from-a-barrel-of-crude-oil

http://www.quora.com/How-much-PVC-is-made-from-a-barrel-of-crude-oil

https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=ethylene+in+naphtha&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=667&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=AXk8VKPXNM2RaLTygogI&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ#imgdii=_

http://www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/The-Chemistry-of-Crude-Oil-270668.html

http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/chemicals-chimiques.nsf/eng/bt01135.html

http://tecspot.astecinc.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/astec-oil-chart.jpg

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894713006682

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/103107082/module7/lecture2/lecture2.pdf

http://www.documentation.emersonprocess.com/groups/public/documents/book/d103417x012.pdf

http://www.pvc-partner.com/en/pvc-the-material/production.html

http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/processes/cracking-isomerisation-and-reforming.html

http://www.htfutures.com/en/Channel/807187

http://www.shell.com.pk/products-services/solutions-for-businesses/business-lubricants-tpkg/products/types-oils-lubricants/hydraulic-fluids.html?gclid=CPygw-7hqcECFazItAodriIA5Q

http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/index.cfm#crudeoil

http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=11691

 

 

PVC Estimated Amount From Oil by Abdul Wasay

Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical  industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However,most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene

Process Description

In the cracking process, hydrocarbon feedstocks are preheated in the convection section to 650°C(using fuel gas and waste heat), mixed with steam and cracked in the radiant section at a temperature of about 850°C (Worrell et al., 1994). Subsequently, the gas mixture is rapidlycooled to 400°C (or quenched) to stop the reaction, during which process high pressure steam is produced. Injection of water further decreases the temperature to about 40-50°C and a condensate, rich in aromatics, is formed. The liquid fraction is extracted, while the gaseous fraction is fed to a series of low temperature, high pressure distillation columns. The fractionation sequence varies from plant to plant (Zeppenfeld et al., 1993).

The following section provides an illustration of the per unit cost of production for ethylene produced from both naphtha and ethane. Olefins are generally produced the world over either by gas cracking (gas-based petrochemicals) such as ethane, propane and butane, or from naphtha (naphtha-based petrochemicals). Paraffins, i.e., straight chain hydrocarbons, yield olefins when heated at a high temperature. Thus, the lighter fraction is suitable for petrochemical plants in the production of olefins and hydrogen because of the presence of paraffinic hydrocarbons. Gas based petrochemicals are manufactured using different streams of natural gas liquids as their feedstock. Natural gas liquids (NGL) are heavier than the methane that is recovered from natural gas.

 

It needs to be highlighted that the yield of olefins decreases with the increasing molecular weight (hence with boiling point) of hydrocarbons. Thus, if ethane is thermally cracked, it will yield 80 percent ethylene. When propane, butane, naphtha, and gas oil are used as feedstock for cracking, the yields will be lower at 45 per cent, 37 per cent, 30 per cent, and 25 per cent respectively (Ray Chaudhuri U. (2011), Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering, CRC Press,Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton.).

Olefins are produced primarily by thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. Naphtha and/or natural gas, diluted with steam, is fed in parallel to a number of gas or oil fired tubular pyrolysis furnaces. In the cracking process, a heavier hydrocarbon molecule is fractured or broken into two or more lighter fragments. These light hydrocarbons are thereupon further cracked to lighter olefins and propagated till the reaction temperature is brought down. After cracking, the remaining processes involve a series of fractionators in which the various product fractions are successively separated. Table 5 shows the cost of production for ethylene using naphtha and natural gas. It should be noted that the following calculation assumes that naphtha was available at the rate of US$ 940 per tonne and ethane was available at US $8.3 per mmbtu. The capital expenditures for the two crackers are US$ 715 million (naphtha) and US$ 718 million (ethane) respectively.

 

 

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